INTERTROCHANTERIC FEMUR FRACTURE
Keywords:transtrochanteric, intertrochanteric, femur, fracture.
Introduction: Intertrochanteric fractures are a type of extracapsular fractures of the proximal femur occurring between the greater and lesser trochanter. They are frequently seen in the elderly because their incidence is higher as life expectancy increases.
Objective: to describe the current information related to epidemiology, anatomy, presentation, classification, evaluation and management of intertrochanteric fractures.
Methodology: a total of 35 articles were analyzed in this review, including review and original articles, as well as clinical cases, of which 27 bibliographies were used because the other articles were not relevant to this study. The sources of information were PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane; the terms used to search for information in Spanish, Portuguese and English were: transtrochanteric, intertrochanteric, femur, fracture, fratura.
Results: Intertrochanteric fractures have a bimodal presentation. They have a female to male ratio ranging from 2:1 to 8:1, possibly due to changes in bone metabolism after menopause. They are frequently seen in the elderly because their incidence is higher as life expectancy increases. Plain radiographs are still the initial choice to complement the diagnosis in this type of fractures. It is preferable to take anteroposterior (AP), AP and lateral cross pelvis projections of the affected hip and full body radiographs of the affected femur. Surgical treatment is preferred over conservative treatment except in cases that contraindicate surgery or anesthesia.
Conclusions: Intertrochanteric fractures are a type of extracapsular fractures of the proximal femur occurring between the greater and lesser trochanter. Femur fractures have several classifications, recently the classification of intertrochanteric fractures is based on the stability of this area. It is of vital importance to evaluate whether it is an open or closed fracture, in addition to assessing the neurovascular status. The surgical treatment has the mission of providing a stable internal fixation that allows early mobilization and full weight bearing. There are several tools and techniques to provide surgical treatment, however, in our current reality, intramedullary nails are the most used devices in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. Regardless of the therapeutic alternative chosen, the mortality risk is 20% to 30% in the first year after the fracture, with males being more affected than females.