URBANIZATION IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW OF TRENDS, CAUSES, AND CHALLENGES
Keywords:Urbanization, Population Dynamics, Urban Sociology, Causes of Urbanization, Cities in India
India has seen increasing urbanization in recent decades, with the nation’s urban population expected to reach 600 million by 2031. This paper outlines the trends, causses, challenges and implications of urbanization in India and investigates the factors that fueled for expansion of urban sprawl, and its subsequent social, economic, and environmental consequences. Rural-urban migration has been one of the key motivations, driven by a desire for greater economic prospects, social mobility, and higher living conditions. Natural population increase in towns and cities has also contributed significantly to urbanization. The expansion of the service sector as well as the emergence of industrial businesses have lured and drawn people to cities in large number. On the positive side, urbanization has boosted economic growth, raised living standards, and expanded access to essential services. On the negative side, urbanization has resulted in a number of issues such as slum expansion, traffic congestion, pollution, and inadequate infrastructure. India’s urbanization has offered mixed results containing both opportunities and treats. As it is inevitable process, it briefly suggests a few policy recommendation from urban sociology point of view.