CALCANEAL FRACTURE EPIDEMIOLOGY ANATOMY MECHANISM OF INJURY CLASSIFICATION IMAGING PRESENTATION CLINICAL PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT AND COMPLICATIONS
Keywords:fracture, calcaneus, osteosynthesis, foot.
Introduction: Throughout time, calcaneal burst fractures have been referred to as lovers' fractures because the injury occurred when a suitor jumped off a lover's balcony to avoid detection. The calcaneus is part of the 7 tarsal bones, calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, first, second and third cuneiform. Calcaneal fractures are infrequent, however, they have a high potential to weaken the limb.
Objective: to detail current information related to calcaneal fractures, epidemiology, anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical evaluation, imaging evaluation, classification, treatment and complications.
Methodology: a total of 30 articles were analyzed in this review, including review and original articles, as well as clinical cases, of which 21 bibliographies were used because the other articles were not relevant to this study. The sources of information were PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane; the terms used to search for information in Spanish, Portuguese and English were: calcaneal fracture, calcaneus, calcaneal osteosynthesis, foot fractures.
Results: The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone, representing 2% of all fractures. Calcaneal fractures are bilateral in 5 to 10%, and are usually related to fractures of the lumbar spine and other fractures of the lower limb caused by high-impact trauma. About 10 % of calcaneal fractures are open.
Conclusions: The calcaneus is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone, accounting for 2 % of all fractures. Calcaneal fractures are bilateral in 5 to 10% and are usually related to fractures of the lumbar spine and other fractures of the lower limb caused by high impact trauma. About 10% of calcaneal fractures are open, and neurovascular injuries are infrequent in calcaneal fractures. Calcaneal fractures are more related to high energy impacts that generate axial loading of the bone, however they can occur with any injury to the foot and ankle. The main characteristics of individuals affected with a calcaneal fracture are pain, swelling, widening, deformity, ecchymosis and functional impotence. To make the radiological diagnosis of calcaneal fracture in the first instance it is recommended to request an anteroposterior projection of the foot, lateral projection of the rearfoot, Harris axial projection and an ankle series; if necessary, a computed tomography can be performed. In practice, calcaneal fractures can be classified as intra-articular or thalamic and extra-articular; in addition, classification systems such as Sanders and Essex-Lopresti are used. Treatment is controversial. Even with adequate reduction and management, calcaneal fractures can become extremely disabling injuries, presenting a mutable prognosis with various types of functional limitation and pain. Currently, some factors have been found to be related to better outcomes, however, the literature comparing various methods of surgical versus conservative treatment show that surgical management has increased complication rates, however, it may lead to optimal functional outcomes in some individuals. Generally, the incidence of complications of calcaneal fractures is high and increases the worse the wound. Among the most common are calcaneal osteomyelitis, post-traumatic osteoarthritis, wound dehiscence, increased heel width, loss of subtalar mobility, chronic peroneal tendonitis, and complex regional pain syndrome.